UWB utilizes a train of impulses rather than a modulated sine wave to transmit information. This unique characteristic makes it perfect for precise ranging applications. Since the pulse occupies such a wide frequency band, its rising edge is very steep and this allows the receiver to very accurately measure the arrival time of the signal. Plus the pulses themselves are very narrow, typically no more than two nanoseconds.
Due to the nature of the signals, UWB pulses can be distinguished even in noisy environments, plus the signals are resistant to multipath effects. All of these traits give UWB big advantage over traditional narrowband signals in case of ranging capabilities. Also due to the strict spectral mask, the transmit power lies at the noise floor, which means that UWB does not interfere with other radio communication systems operating in the same frequency bands, since it just increases the overall noise floor, a principle that is very similar to spread spectrum technologies (CDMA).
DW1000 from DecaWave utilizes six radio channels in total, both in the UWB’s low and high bands. This gives the chip flexibility, since if there is some sort of interference in one channel, the chip can be easily switched to a different radio channel. Channels 1,2,3 and 5 are defined by their 500 MHz bandwidth while channels 4 and 7 offer bandwidth of over 1 GHz.